These acknowledgements are preliminary. Please let me know if you see anything that desparately needs to be added immediately.


This project was principally supported under an NEH-Mellon Digital Publication Fellowship in the year 2018.

Additional portions of the work here were done through fellowships at the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University in Spring 2017, and as a fellow at the Cultural Observatory @ Harvard in 2011-2013.


I have used a great variety of open-source code. Most of the underlying data visualizations are coded using D3; I’ve also drawn heavily for code snippets from bl.ocks, Observable and Stack Overflow; I have attempted to document any borrowings in the comments, but have surely failed in some cases. I use color schemes from Cynthia Brewer. Licenses for code are in the online repository.

I thank Philippe Riviere for sharing his versions of certain ocean-facing map projections.


Land patent data from the Bureau of Land Management, Eastern States Office